DR. TIAGO REIS MARQUES | PSYCHIATRIST

GLOSSARY

Addiction

Alzheimer’s disease

Anorexia

Anxiety

Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Bipolar Disorder

Bulimia

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)

Pathological Grief

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Hypochondria

Major Depressive Disorder

Mindfulness

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Panic Disorder

Personality Disorder

Psychopharmacology

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Psychiatry

Psychoeducation

Psychotherapy

Schizophrenia

Sleep disorders

Socia Phobia

Addiction

An addiction is defined as a persistent, compulsive dependence on a behavior or substance and characterized by a set of cognitive, behavioral and physiological symptoms.

Alzheimer’s disease

Is the most common form of dementia, usually starts in late middle age/old age and is characterized by progressive memory loss, impaired thinking, confusion and disorientation, and changes in personality and mood.

Anorexia

Is characterized by a restriction in calorie intake leading to a significantly low body weight and an intense fear of gaining weight or of becoming fat (even though at a significant low weight).

Anxiety

The essence of anxiety is worrying about some potential threat in the future. Anxiety states are characterized by several physiological, cognitive and behavioral symptoms. Anxiety disorders differ from one another in the types of objects/situations that induce anxiety.

Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes severely with functioning. Is most common in childhood but ir can be present in adults – where is frequent the occurence of attention deficit without hyperactivity.

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar Disorder (formerly called manic-depressive illness) is a mood disorder characterized by extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression) usually interspersed with relatively long intervals of normal mood.

Bulimia

An eating disorder characterized by recurrent binge eating episodes (i.e. eating in a discrete period of time an overly excessive amount of food with a sense of lack of control over eating) followed by measures to prevent weight gain (e.g. self-induced vomit).

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)

CBT is an evidence-based psychological treatment that focuses on the way people think ("cognitive") and act ("behavioural"). By changing thinking patterns we would be able to change emotional and behavioural responses to a given situation.

Pathological Grief

A clinical condition that must be distinguished from the normal process of bereavement following a loss. Complicated grief characterizes as a set of symptoms that derail or impede healing after loss and lead to a period of prolonged and intensified suffering with clinically significant distress or disability.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Characterized by persistent, excessive, and unrealistic worry and tension about everyday things. GAD is a clinical condition and patients are usually extremely worried about a wide range of things, even when there is no reason to worry.

Hypochondria

Characterized by intense and persistent worry about having a serious illness in the absence of a medical diagnosis. Constant self-examination, self-diagnosis and fears that minor symptoms may indicate serious illness are common.

Major Depressive Disorder

Characterized by persistent feelings of sadness and/or loss of interest/pleasure in normal activities. Other symptoms include: sleep disturbance (insomnia or sleeping too much), lack of energy, slowed thinking, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt.

Mindfulness

A type of attention training that involves paying attention in a particular way; on purpose, in the present moment, and non-judgmentally. Mindfulness-based interventions focus on several practical exercises (e.g. meditation) aiming at a decentred relationship with thoughts and feelings.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Characterized by the presence of unreasonable, repetitive, and high anxiety-eliciting thoughts (obsessions) that lead to the repetitive behaviours/rituals (compulsions) aiming at reducing anxiety and discomfort.

Panic Disorder

An anxiety disorder that is characterized by several sudden attacks/crises of fear and panic. A panic attack is a sudden episode of intense fear, with associated distress and feelings of imminent death, usually occuring without apparent cause. It is usualy associated with agoraphobia – fear of open spaces.

Personality Disorder

Defined as a chronic, inflexible, maladaptive pattern of thinking and behaving that seriously impairs an individual's ability to function in different settings. People with personality disorder may not perceive their personality as problematic.

Psychopharmacology

The science that studies the drugs that act on the brain and that aims to treat the symptoms of mental illness through their action in the brain chemistry.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

An illness that's triggered by an extremely negative event, either experiencing or witnessing it. PTSD may elicit several symptoms: re-experiencing symptoms (such as flashbacks), avoidance symptoms and hyper arousal symptoms.

Psychiatry

The medical specialty devoted to the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental illness and emotional disorders. Psychiatrists aim at treating the biological, psychological, and social components of mental illness simultaneously.

Psychoeducation

Encompasses a broad range of interventions that combine education and other activities (skills training, problem-solving strategies, supportive interventions) aiming at helping to deal with symptoms.

Psychotherapy

A term used to describe the treatment of psychological disorders through helping people to modify their behaviours, cognitions, emotions, and/or other personal characteristics in directions that the participants deem desirable.

Schizophrenia

A psychotic disorder marked by severely impaired thinking, emotions, and behaviours. The most common symptoms include: delusions (false beliefs), hallucinations (e.g. hearing voices), altered thought/speech, altered behaviour, social isolation, loss of interests, etc.

Sleep disorders

Persistent disturbances in the quantity/quality of sleep that interfere with normal functioning. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder and can have primary and secondary causes.

Socia Phobia

A term used to describe intense and longstanding feelings of anxiety in social situations. Often associated with fears of embarrassment, humiliation, negative evaluation and criticism.

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